Anovulation is a state in which ovulation is absent. This is a result of hormonal imbalance or due to the improper development of the ovaries. This is when the formation of the ovum (egg) in the ovary is disturbed. Approximately, 35% of women experience anovulation. The most known cause of this abnormality is the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that causes irregular menstrual cycles or lack of menstruation (amenorrhea), obesity and features of hyperandrogenism like acne and hirsutism. The origin of this hormonal disorder may be in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or in the ovary itself.
The initiation of the treatment involves restoring weight and lifestyle changes. If normalization of menstrual cycle and ovulation is not achieved, the next step is medical treatment with medications or injectable hormones to normalize the hormonal functions and stimulate ovulation. Ovarian drilling (making small holes on the ovary’s surface by using heat or laser) is also considered to improve the ovarian hormonal microenvironment.